Cadillac Coupe de Ville
1960 Cadillac Coupe de Ville|
1960 Cadillac Coupe de Ville
|Class||Personal luxury car|
The name "De Ville" is from the French de la ville or de ville meaning "of the town". In French coach building parlance, a coupé de ville, from the French couper (to cut) and ville (town or city), refers to a town car that is "cut" by a division between the passenger and driver compartments.
The first Cadillac "Coupe de Ville" was shown during the 1949 Autorama. It was built on a Cadillac Sixty Special chassis and featured a dummy air-scoop, chrome trim around front wheel openings, and a one-piece windshield and rear glass. The interior was black and trimmed in gray leather, including the headliner, to match the roof color. It was equipped with a telephone in the glove compartment, a vanity case and a secretarial pad in the rear armrest, power windows and highly decorative chrome interior trim. The prototype "Coupe de Ville" was used by GM President Charles E. Wilson until 1957 when he presented it to his secretary. At some time during this period it acquired a dark Vicodec roof. The prototype "Coupe de Ville" was still in use as of 1976.
The Cadillac Series 62 Coupe de Ville was introduced late in the 1949 model year. Along with the Buick Roadmaster Riviera, and the Oldsmobile 98 Holiday, it was among the first pillarless hardtop coupes ever produced. At $3,496 it was only a dollar less than the Series 62 convertible, and like the convertible, it came with power windows standard. It was luxuriously trimmed, with leather upholstery and chrome 'bows' in the headliner to simulate the ribs of a convertible top. In its first year the Series 62 Coupe de Ville only sold 2,150 units. But 1950 sales more than doubled to 4507, and in 1951 sales more than doubled again to 10,241 exceeding the sales for the Series 62 Club Coupe that year. Also, in 1951, Coupe de Ville chrome script appeared on the rear roof pillar for the first time, to further distinguish it from the Series 62 Club Coupe.
In 1956 the Series 62 Coupe de Ville was joined by the Series 62 Sedan de Ville, Cadillac's first standard production 4-door hardtop. Similarly to the Coupe de Ville, it was also more expensive and more luxuriously trimmed that the standard 4-door Series 62. With 41,732 sold, it also easily outsold the Series 62 sedan in its very first year. Given their sales success, it was only natural that the Coupe de Ville and Sedan de Ville were moved to their own separate series in 1959, the Series 6300, being joined by a De Ville convertible in 1964.
1959 Cadillac Coupe de Ville|
1959 Cadillac Coupe de Ville
|Body style||2-door hardtop|
|Engine||390 cu in (6.4 L) V8|
|Wheelbase||101.6 in (2,581 mm)|
|Length||225 in (5,715 mm)|
In 1959 the De Ville line was redesigned and separated in a distinct Series 63. The new model featured full fender skirts and a sleeker front end. Power steering and brakes were standard. Three-speed electric windshield wipers were also available.
The Coupe de Ville, like other Cadillacs, grew substantially larger and more powerful from 1949 through to the early 1970s. By 1973 it was 4 inches (101.6 mm) longer in wheelbase, 17 inches (431.8 mm) longer overall, and more than 900 lb (408 kg) heavier, and its standard V8 engine had grown from 331 in3 (5.4 L) to 472 in3 (7.7 L), and was available with a 501 in3 (8.2 L).
- Cadillac Coupe deVille BW 1.JPG
1960 Cadillac Coupe de Ville two-door hardtop. There were about 21,000 of these made
Interior of 1960 Coupe de Ville
- Cadillac Coupe deVille BW 2.JPG
1963 Cadillac Coupe de Ville|
1963 Cadillac Coupe de Ville
|Assembly||Detroit, Michigan, USA|
|Body style||2-door hardtop|
390 cu in (6.4 L) V8|
429 cu in (7.0 L) V8
|Wheelbase||129.5 in (3,289 mm)|
1961-62: 222.0 in (5,639 mm)|
1963: 223.0 in (5,664 mm)
1964: 223.5 in (5,677 mm)
Cadillac Series 62|
In 1963,a tilt steering wheel became optional.
1970 Cadillac Coupe de Ville|
1970 Cadillac Coupe de Ville
|Body style||2-door hardtop|
429 cu in (7.0 L) V8|
472 cu in (7.7 L) V8
129.5 in (3,289 mm)|
Special: 133.0 in (3,378 mm)
1965-66: 224.0 in (5,690 mm)|
1967-68: 224.7 in (5,707 mm)
The Coupe de Ville was redesigned for 1965 but rode on the same 129.5-inch (3,290 mm) wheelbase. The elevated tailfins were removed, with fins planed flat, and sharp, distinct body lines replaced the rounded look. Also new were a straight rear bumper and vertical lamp clusters. The headlight pairs switched from horizontal to vertical, thus permitting a wider grille.
Curved side windows appeared, and pillared sedans returned in the Calais and De Ville series. Sixty Specials likewise gained roof pillars, while six-window hardtop sedans were dropped. The Special also reverted to its exclusive 133-inch wheelbase after riding the standard 129.5-inch chassis for 1959-64.
Although sales on the restyled 1965 Coupe de Ville set a record for this popular body style, it took second place to the companion four-door hardtop Sedan de Ville. 43,345 Coupe de Villes and 19,200 De Ville convertibles were sold during the 1965 model year. Models 68357-J to 68367-F, the 2-door De Villes carried a manufacturer retail prices ranging from $5,419 to $5,639 for hardtops and convertibles.
A padded vinyl roof was a $121 extra-cost option on the hardtop model. The engine size had grown to 429 in (7.0 L) with 340 horsepower. All four De Ville models had small script nameplates on the ends of their rear fenders just above the chrome side molding.
In 1966 the body-style remained unchanged, with only cosmetic styling changes from the previous year. It carried Tiffany-like scripts above the rear tip of the horizontal body rub moldings. Standard equipment additions followed the pattern of previous years. Cadillac crests and V-shaped moldings, front and rear, were identifiers.
Coupe de Ville sales passed the 50,000 mark during the 1966 model year for the first time, but continued to trail those of the four-door Hardtop Sedan de Ville. De Ville closed models had chrome trim in the concave reveal around the side window openings, including the window sills. Automatic level control was available. A new engine mounting system and patented quiet exhaust were used. Weight was 4,460 lbs for the hardtop and 4,445 lbs for the convertible.
Prices for the 1966 models ranged from $5,339-$5,555 for hardtops and the convertible. 50,580 units were sold.
The 1967 Coupe de Villes were extensively restyled. Prominent styling features were given a powerful frontal appearance with forward-leaning front end, long sculptured body lines, and redefined rear fenders that had more than just a hint of tail fins in them. The full-width forward-thrusted "eggcrate" grille was flanked by dual stacked headlights for the third consecutive year. Rectangular parking lamps were built into the outer edges of the grille.
Minor trim variations and slightly richer interiors separated De Ville from Calais. Tiffany style chrome signature scripts were again found above the body side molding on the rear fenders. Coupe de Ville and Calais coupes got a new roofline, inspired by the Florentine show car created for the 1964 New York World's Fair.
As on that show car, the quarter window glass retracted rearward into a sail panel.
The 1967 Coupe de Ville equipment lists included all the same features found on Calais models plus power operated window regulators; rear cigarette lighters in all styles and two-way power front seats. A slide-out fuse box and safety front seat back lock for two-door models were additional Cadillac advances for the 1967 model year. 1970 was the last year the de Ville was offered in the convertible body style.
1971 Coupe de Ville (front)|
1971 Cadillac Coupe de Ville
|Body style||2-door hardtop|
472 cu in (7.7 L) V8|
500 cu in (8.2 L) V8
|Wheelbase||130.0 in (3,302 mm)|
1971-72: 225.8 in (5,735 mm)|
1973: 227.8 in (5,786 mm)
1974-76: 230.7 in (5,860 mm)
|Width||79.8 in (2,027 mm)|
|Height||53.8 in (1,367 mm)|
The Coupe de Ville remained a pillarless hardtop through the 1973 model year, but for 1974 was restyled as a pillared two-door with then-fashionable opera windows behind the side windows. The Sedan de Ville remained a pillarless four-door through 1976. It had Cadillac's emission control system. A lamp monitor system is standard. In 1972, a rear ABS system became an option. In 1973, an optional outside thermometer was new. New rectangular headlights with wraparound turn signals appeared in 1975, and the grille was no longer recessed. The 472 in3 engine was discontinued for 1975, leaving the 500 as the sole engine. In 1976, six-way power seats were standard.
1977–1979 Cadillac Coupe de Ville|
1977 Cadillac Coupe de Ville
|Body style||2-door hardtop|
425 cu in (7.0 L) V8|
368 cu in (6.0 L) V8
4.1 L HT-4100 V8
350 cu in (5.7 L) LF9 diesel V8
|Wheelbase||121.5 in (3,086 mm)|
1977-79: 221.2 in (5,618 mm)|
1980-84: 221.0 in (5,613 mm)
1977-79: 74.6 in (1,895 mm)|
1980-82: 76.5 in (1,943 mm)
1983-84: 75.3 in (1,913 mm)/76.4 in (1,941 mm)Template:Fix
1977-79: 54.4 in (1,382 mm)|
1980-84: 54.6 in (1,387 mm)
When General Motors initiated the redesign of the B-body and C-body for the 1977 model year the De Ville (and all other full-size GMs) shrank by 9.8 in (249 mm) and about 750 lb (340 kg). The new standard engine was a 425 in3 (7.0 L) V8, with the 350 in3 LF9 diesel becoming an option for 1978.
In 1977, the first generation of down-sized Cadillacs included mechanically similar De Ville and Fleetwood, with the latter still occupying the top of the lineup. The models primarily differed in minor trim, interior upholstery & equipment levels. These were the first De Ville models to be marketed without fender skirts over the rear wheels.
The 500 in3 V8 engine was discontinued, replaced by a 425 in3 engine. This engine was replaced by the 368 in3 V8-6-4 for 1980, and the 350 in3 LF9 diesel V8 was now an option. Reliability problems with the V8-6-4 engine's computer controls prompted Cadillac to rush their new aluminum-block HT series engine into production for 1982.
The d'Elegance package continued for Coupe de Ville in 1977. Three-sided, wrap-around tail lamps were a 1977 feature only (although they would re-appear in 1987). Coupe de Ville's popular "Cabriolet" option included a rear-half padded vinyl roof covering and opera lamps. Sales figures include 138,750 Coupe de Villes. A CB radio was optional.
In addition to a redesigned grille, 1978 saw slim, vertical tail lamps inset into chrome bumper end caps with built-in side marker lamps (Cadillac would retain this "vertical tail lamp inset" design feature for many years, including De Ville through 1999, and Fleetwood through 1996). New for 1978, a "Phaeton" package was optional for de Ville. The Phaeton package featured a simulated convertible-top, special pin striping, wire wheel discs, and "Phaeton" name plates in place of the usual "de Ville" ornament on the rear fenders. Inside were leather upholstered seats and a leather-trimmed steering wheel. The package was available in Cotillion White (with Dark Blue roof), Platinum Silver (with a Black roof), or Arizona Beige (with a Dark Brown roof). Sales figures included 117,750 Coupe de Villes.
With bigger changes coming in 1980, the 1979 models saw few alterations, one of which was a new grille design. The lineup for the 121.5" wheelbase cars remained the same three models as before. As it had been since the discontinuation of the Calais for 1977, the Coupe de Ville was Cadillac's entry-level model at $11,728. For 1979, the "Phaeton" package was still available in three colors, but with a new color, "Western Saddle Firemist" (with leather interior in "Antique Saddle") replacing the "Arizona Beige" scheme. A fuel monitor system was optional.
1980 saw a major redesign; while maintaining the same wheelbase and interior, the body exterior was redesigned. The Phaeton option was discontinued. Coupe de Ville now wore full, bright side window surround moldings. The chromed-plastic grille held a Rolls-Royce inspired design, with thick vertical bars. The grille cast for 1980 was used again for the 1989 to 1992 Brougham. Late in the 1980 model year, V6 power (in the form of a 4-bbl 252cu engine manufactured by Buick) was offered as a credit option. This became the first sub-V8 (less than 8 cylinders) powerplant offered in a Cadillac since 1914. The standard engine for 1980 was a new 368cu (6.0-liter) V8. Pricing for Coupe de Ville was $12,899. An automatic level control was optional.
1981's biggest news turned out to be a fiasco - the V-8-6-4 engine. Despite numerous customer complaints, Cadillac defended the micro-compressor controlled powerplant, and even offered special extended warranties to customers. Also available again this year was Oldsmobile's 5.7-liter V-8 diesel engine. The Buick V-6, teamed with an automatic transmission, returned for 1981 after a short initial offering in the spring of 1980. With the new front-drive Cadillac Cimarron taking over as Cadillac's entry-level model, the Coupe de Ville now became the step-up, priced at $13,450. A new grille design was made up of small squares, similar to the pattern from 1979. The egg-crate 1981 grille cast was used again for the 1987 and 1988 models.
1982 changes were few: a new grille design (which was used for 1982 through 1986), revamped parking lamp/tail lamp ornamentation, and a new standard wheel cover design. The biggest news for Cadillac that year was the 4.1-liter V-8 engine to replace last year's V-8-6-4 (which returned in 1982, but only for the Fleetwood 75 limousine). The new engine featured a closed-loop digital fuel injection system, free-standing cast-iron cylinders within a cast-aluminum block, and was coupled with a 4-speed automatic-overdrive transmission. Other engine options included the Buick V6 or Oldsmobile's diesel V-8. The Coupe de Ville was priced at $15,249.
Cadillac Coupe de Ville|
1985 Cadillac Coupe de Ville
|Body style||2-door coupe|
4.5 L 155 hp (116 kW) V8 / 4.1 L 130 hp (97 kW) V8|
4.9 L 200 hp (150 kW) V8
|Wheelbase||110.8 in (2,814 mm)|
1985-86: 195.0 in (4,953 mm)|
1987-88: 196.4 in (4,989 mm)
1989–1991: 202.7 in (5,149 mm)
1992-93: 203.3 in (5,164 mm)
1985-86: 71.7 in (1,821 mm)|
1987-91: 72.5 in (1,842 mm)
1992-93: 73.4 in (1,864 mm)
1985-91: 55.0 in (1,397 mm)|
1992-93: 54.8 in (1,392 mm)
In 1985 the De Ville was downsized again, dropping some 26.2 in (665.5 mm) in length and 800 lb (363 kg) of weight. It also adopted front-wheel drive, moving to the new C-body platform. A cell phone was optional.
For 1990, Coupe de Ville (and Fleetwood coupe) lost their telescopic steering column, but retained the tilt feature in exchange for an airbag mounted onto the newly standard leather-trimmed steering wheel. Engine output was up an additional 25 horsepower (19 kW) with the addition of sequential multi-port fuel injection, but this change now required the use of premium fuel (minimum 91 octane in most areas). 1990 models also received GM's PASS Key theft-deterrent system which used a coded resistor pellet embedded into the ignition key. Other new features for 1990 included a non-illuminated vanity mirror on the driver's visor (a passenger-side visor mirror had been standard equipment for decades now), and the previously optional body-color door edge guards and "clam shell" front center armrest with storage were now standard, along with manual seatback recliners for driver and passenger. Cadillac built built 17,507 Coupe de Villes and 2,429 Fleetwood coupes this year. The optional Cabriolet roof (standard on Fleetwood) appeared on 3,988 Coupe de Villes, while the available Phaeton roof was found on an additional 4,453 cars. The Phaeton roof, re-creating the look of a convertible top, was included in the Spring Edition package (with 4,413 built), which also included perforated leather seat inserts among other items. The most popular color for 1990 was Cotillion White, with 5,292 manufactured, while the least chosen color was Medium Dark Gray, which found its way onto 193 cars that year. While all these two-door models wore the standard white-wall Michelin tires, this would be the last year for plain wheel covers on Coupe de Ville (found on 2,788 cars this year), as next year would feature a standard styled aluminum wheel (similar to the Fleetwood coupe). 479 two-door models were produced for export that year: 383 to Canada, 81 to Japan, and another 15 to Saudi Arabia. The 1990 Coupe de Ville was priced at $26,960, and the Fleetwood coupe at $32,400.
In 1991, a 200 hp (150 kW) 4.9-liter V8—the largest of this type—became the new standard power plant. Also new was a grille of an inverted trapezoid design (almost upside-down from the previous year's egg-crate keystone design), and revised bumper and body-side moldings. The new grille held the familiar shape of the Cadillac crest itself — a styling cue that continues on to this day. The grille was now attached to the forward edge of the hood, and lifted up along with the hood when raised (similar to Mercedes-Benz). The secondary hood release latch was at the bottom of the grille instead of its previous location above the passenger side headlight. In addition to the new engine and minor front-end restyling, several previously optional features became standard this year, including the anti-lock braking system, accent striping, automatic door locks, twilight sentinel headlamp control, electrochromic inside rear-view mirror, and electric defoggers for the rear window and outside mirror. New standard features included rear-seat air conditioning vents, central door unlocking from the driver's door and luggage compartment, revamped sun visors with shaded slide-out extensions, brake / transmission interlock safety switch, and an oil life indicator through the fuel data center. Other new features included the available remote keyless entry system, and the optional illuminated mirrors now featured a slide switch that offered variable-intensity lighting. Cadillac manufactured 10,057 Coupe de Ville models, and an additional 597 Fleetwood coupes (of the 597 Fleetwood coupes, only 248 were equipped with the optional Custom Seating Package that included power back rest recliners for the front seats, and a 2-position Memory Seat function for the driver's seat). All of these cars were produced at GM's Orion Assembly plant in Michigan. The total for both models with optional leather upholstery was 9,799 (with Dark Auburn being the least chosen interior color - only 11 in leather and 2 in velour were ever made). The most popular exterior color for '91 was Cotillion White, with 2,967 models; while the least chosen color was Medium Dark Gray, of which only 58 were manufactured. Of the 10,057 Coupe de Villes, 3,397 were Spring Edition models. The optional Cabriolet Roof with opera lamps (standard equipment on the Fleetwood coupe), which covered the rear-half of the roof in padded vinyl, was equipped on 1,729 Coupe de Villes, while an additional 3,952 carried the $1,095 Phaeton simulated convertible roof. The standard cassette stereo was found in nearly all models, while 1,122 opted for the Bose sound system at extra cost (752 with cassette, 370 with compact disc). Cadillac produced 164 of the 2-door models for export, including 126 to Canada, 23 to Japan, 5 to the Gulf States, 3 to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the remainder to Europe. Pricing was $30,205 for Coupe de Ville, and $34,675 for Fleetwood coupe.
For 1992, Cadillac manufactured 6,980 Coupe de Ville models, and an additional 291 Fleetwood coupes (of the 291 Fleetwood coupes, only 128 were equipped with the optional Custom Seating Package, a $425 option that included power back rest recliners for the front seats, and a two-position Memory Seat function for the driver's seat). All of these cars were produced at GM's Orion Assembly plant in Michigan. The most popular color for '92 was Cotillion White, with 1,879 models; while the least chosen color was Mary Kay Pink, of which only one was manufactured. Of the 6,980 Coupe de Villes, 2,635 were Spring Edition models. The Cabriolet Roof with opera lamps (a $925 option, and standard equipment on the Fleetwood coupe) which covered the rear-half of the roof in padded vinyl, was equipped on 3,572 Coupe de Villes, while an additional 3,319 carried the $1,095 Phaeton convertible-look roof. Only 89 standard painted-roof Coupe de Villes were made for 1992. Cadillac produced 144 of the two-door models for export, including 129 to Canada, and 15 to Japan. Pricing was $31,740 for Coupe de Ville, and $36,360 for Fleetwood coupe.
With the discontinuation of the Fleetwood coupe at the end of the 1992 model year, the 1993 Coupe de Ville was Cadillac's last six-passenger two-door car. The previously optional speed-sensitive suspension, "Computer Command Ride", introduced last year became standard equipment, and now included a new speed-sensitive steering system as well. Minor trim changes included black-out trim in the grille (as seen on the 1992 Touring Sedan). GM built 4,711 Coupe de Villes this year. The previously optional Cabriolet roof became standard equipment this year, and appeared on 3,606 cars. The Phaeton roof, which re-created the dashing look of a convertible top (now just a $170 option since the Cabriolet roof was standard equipment), was found on 1,105 cars. There were no painted-roof Coupe de Villes this year. Again, the most popular color for '93 was Cotillion White, with 1,147 manufactured, while the least chosen color was Dark Plum, which found its way onto 24 cars this year. The four wheel choices this year included the standard-design cast aluminum wheel on 2,012 cars, optional $235 lace-design squeeze-case aluminum wheel on 1,766 cars, optional $235 locking wire wheel disc on 749 cars, and the $1,195 chromed squeeze-case aluminum wheel on 184 cars. Only 18 Coupe de Villes were ordered with the no-charge option of blackwall Michelin radial tires, the other 4,693 models wore the standard-equipment white-wall version. 3,036 had mono-tone paint, while the others held a lower body accent color, with the breakdown as follows: Silver, 1,130; Dark Red, 275; Gunmetal Gray, 177; and Beige, 93. In total, 4,168 had the standard Symphony Sound system, while 543 were ordered with the optional Bose stereo (310 with cassette, 233 with compact disc). Nearly all Coupe de Villes had leather upholstery (the most popular color was Neutral, with 1,236 made), as only 239 velour interior models were manufactured this year (the least chosen cloth color was Taupe, with only 24 manufactured). No Coupe de Villes were produced for export this year, and only 523 of the 4,711 built included California emission equipment. The base price of the 1993 Coupe de Ville was $33,915.
The declining popularity of full-size coupes led to the discontinuation of the Coupe de Ville at the end of the 1993 model year. For 1994, the series comprised two four-door models: DeVille and DeVille Concours.
1950s models with their extravagant fins are probably the best-known versions of the car. Models from this era have commonly appeared in movies and music videos and also on postage stamps. Chuck Berry's first single and first hit, Maybellene, features a race between a Coupe de Ville and a Ford. A Coupe de Ville is mentioned in the Eddie Cochran song "Teenage Heaven" (released 1959), in the Eminem song "Won't Back Down", in the Joe Diffie song "Pickup Man", in the Ty Segall song "You Make the Sun Fry", in The Hooters song "Satellite", in the Joe Nichols song "Brokenheartsville", in the Meat Loaf song "Two Out of Three Ain't Bad", the song "Crazy Rap" by Afroman and in the Kings of Leon song "Knocked Up".
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "Cadillac Terms and Definitions D - G". Cadillacdatabase.net. http://www.cadillacdatabase.net/Dbas_txt/Factd-g.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 "Cadillac Terms and Definitions A - C". Cadillacdatabase.net. http://www.cadillacdatabase.net/Dbas_txt/Facta-c.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Kowalke, Ron (1997). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause publications. ISBN 0-87341-521-3.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Gunnell, John (2005). Standard Catalog of Cadillac 1903–2005. Krause publications. ISBN 0-873491-289-7.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 "Directory Index: Cadillac/1959_Cadillac/1959_Cadillac_Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1959_Cadillac/1959_Cadillac_Brochure/1959%20Cadillac-15.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1959_Cadillac/1959_Cadillac_Comparison_Folder". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1959_Cadillac/1959_Cadillac_Comparison_Folder/1959%20Cadillac%20Comparison%20Folder-04.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1961_Cadillac/1961_Cadillac_Brochure_1". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1961_Cadillac/1961_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1961%20Cadillac-20.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Gunnell, John A., ed. Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. krause publications. ISBN 0-87341-027-0.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1962_Cadillac/1962_Cadillac_Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1962_Cadillac/1962_Cadillac_Brochure/1962%20Cadillac-12.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1963_Cadillac/1963_Cadillac_Prestige_Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1963_Cadillac/1963_Cadillac_Prestige_Brochure/1963%20Cadillac%20Prestige-18-19.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1965_Cadillac/1965_Cadillac_Brochure_1". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1965_Cadillac/1965_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1965%20Cadillac-21.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1974_Cadillac/1974_Cadillac_Brochure_1". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1974_Cadillac/1974_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1974%20Cadillac-26.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1971_Cadillac/1971_Cadillac_Brochure_1". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1971_Cadillac/1971_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1971%20Cadillac-19.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 "Directory Index: Cadillac/1976_Cadillac/1976_Cadillac_Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1976_Cadillac/1976_Cadillac_Brochure/1976%20Cadillac%20pg24.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1971_Cadillac/1971_Cadillac_Brochure_3". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1971_Cadillac/1971_Cadillac_Brochure_3/1971%20Cadillac-a07.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1972_Cadillac/1972_Cadillac_Brochure_1". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1972_Cadillac/1972_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1972%20Cadillac-23.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1972_Cadillac/1972_Cadillac_Brochure_1". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1972_Cadillac/1972_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1972%20Cadillac-25.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1973_Cadillac/1973_Cadillac_Brochure_2". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1973_Cadillac/1973_Cadillac_Brochure_2/1973%20Cadillac-a12.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1976_Cadillac/1976_Cadillac_Brochure/1976%20Cadillac%20pg21.html
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 "Directory Index: Cadillac/1977_Cadillac/1977_Cadillac_Brochure_1". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1977_Cadillac/1977_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1977%20Cadillac-17.html. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- ↑ "Directory Index: Cadillac/1977_Cadillac/1977 Cadillac Brochure 2". Oldcarbrochures.com. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1977_Cadillac/1977%20Cadillac%20Brochure%202/1977%20Cadillac-a07.html. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
- ↑ "1979 Cadillac Brochure". Cadillac Motors Division of General Motors. 1979. http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Cadillac/1979_Cadillac/1979_Cadillac_Brochure_1/1979%20Cadillac-17.html. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- ↑ World Cars 1980. Herald Books. ISBN 0-970714-12-6.
- ↑ 1986 Cadillac touring Editions, promotional brochure issued by manufacturer
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Flammang, James Standard Catalog of American Cars 1976–1999 3rd Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc 1999)
- ↑ extravagant fins
- ↑ postage stamps